The frequency range to which the amplitude of the stage’s motion is dropped by 3dB with a small input scanning signal. It reflects how well the stage can follow the driving signal for a particular frequency range.

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Represents how close the actual position of a nanopositioner is to the theoretical position to which it is expected to move. It is affected (or determined) by linearity error, hysteresis, abbe error, scale factor error and positioning noise, etc.

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